Mamphela Ramphele has had a celebrated career as an activist, medical doctor, academic, businesswoman and political thinker. In 1968 she enrolled for a medical degree at the University of Natal, where she became involved in the South African Students Organisation (SASO) and was a founder, with Steve Biko, of the Black Consciousness Movement. In 1976 she was detained under the Terrorism Act, and from 1977 to 1983 she was banned to Tzaneen in the Northern Transvaal. Mamphela became a research fellow at the University of Cape Town in 1986 and was appointed vice-chancellor in 1996. In 2000 she became a managing director of the World Bank. Among many other positions, she has served as the director of IDASA, a board member of Anglo American and a trustee of the Nelson Mandela Foundation. In 2013 she formed the political platform AgangSA, and in 2014 she considered running as presidential candidate for the Democratic Alliance, but she subsequently withdrew from party politics. She is the author of several books, including A Passion for Freedom and Conversations with My Sons and Daughters. Her most recent book is Dreams, Betrayal and Hope.